The Gorgon from the Roman baths at Bath. A Possible Case of Mistaken Identity.

Gorgon/Gordon/Oceanus discovered at the Roman Baths at Bath. Image courtesy of Brian Snelson.
Gorgon/Gordon/Oceanus discovered at the Roman Baths at Bath. Image courtesy of Brian Snelson.

Is the Gorgon head at the Roman Baths at Bath actually Oceanus?

Whilst idly flicking through a book on Greek mythology, I happened across an illustration of a Roman altar depicting what I thought was a familiar face. There were a number of figures on it, but the main focus was Selene, a Greek lunar deity, known by the Romans as Luna. It wasn’t actually Selene who had caught my eye, but the hairy, shaggy browed gent beneath. There aren’t many faces like his in Classical literature, or anywhere else for that matter, so it didn’t take long before the penny dropped and recognition dawned – he was the spitting image (apparently a truncation of spirit and image) of the ‘Gorgon’ face at the Roman baths at Bath. The caption identified this chap as Oceanus. I’d never heard of him before – I know very little of the Greek and Roman pantheon – so I thought this would be a good opportunity to educate myself and, along the way, see if there was any connection between the two deities.

Oceanus was one of the Titans, a group of supernatural figures who the lither, bickering, unpredictable and entirely more human gods of Olympus overthrew.  Oceanus, as you have have intuited from his name, was an aquatic deity. He was husband to Tethys, who was also an aquatic Titan, and his sister. Between them they produced over three thousand watery daughters (the Oceanids) and the same amount of watery sons (the Potamoi). Both sets of offspring were expressions of aquatic domains, with the Potomoi appearing to be largely restricted to rivers, while the Oceanids covered all else – rain, ponds, springs, clouds and rivers.

Mosaic of Oceanos and Tethys - 2nd-3rd Century - Zeugma Mosaic Museum - Gaziantep - Turkey. Image courtesy of Adam Jones.

The happy couple – a mosaic of Oceanos and Tethys, 2nd-3rd century. Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey. Image courtesy of Adam Jones.

Oceanus was a popular god (or rather Titan) amongst the Romans in Britain, particularly with those who depended on him being in a good mood. The emperor Severus, whose campaigns in Europe relied on a combined fleet, issued coins bearing the images of both Oceanus and Neptune. The Sixth Legion set up a pair of altars – one for Oceanus and one for Neptune – which are believed to have stood either side of the road of the bridge that crossed the Tyne. These altars, at which you were supposed to leave an offering, presumably functioned like a supernatural toll-gate. He also appears in a couple of mosaics. Well, in one of these his image is unmistakable, but the other has been disputed, largely based on the fact that his horns have a somewhat antleresque quality to them, as opposed to the more commonplace bull-horns or pincers. But as the centre-piece of the great dish that composes part of the Mildenhall treasure, Oceanus shows that his head-gear could take on a variety of forms including, in this case, a pair of porpoises.

In short, Oceanus, father of the Potamoi, co-progenitor of the Oceanids, and all round master of watery things, was just the type of deity you might expect to find as the face of the Roman baths, given that it was a temple devoted to water, and is a stone’s throw from the Avon, a large river that leads to the Severn (an even larger river) that leads to the sea. In stead, the visage at Bath has always been identified as a male Gorgon. This is mystifying on a couple of points – the first is that it does not have snakes for hair, and the second – possibly most important point of the two – there is no such thing as a male Gorgon (should that be a Gordon?), and never has been. There are in fact two possible serpentine candidates in his lower beard. But Oceanus was frequently depicted with serpents. In one mosaic featuring Oceanus and Tethys side by side, she has a serpent looped, boa-like, across her shoulders, with the creature roping him in on the act too.

The only thing standing in the way of moving the identification from persuading to convincing was the fact that Gordon sported not dolphins at his temples, nor pincers, or horns, but a pair of wings. But look again at the mosaic of Oceanus and Tethys. Tethys has wings very similar to Gordon’s. These are generally taken to represent her role as the mother of storm clouds – an aspect we must presume was high in the mind of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, the second emperor of France, when he chose the binomial of the Wedge-rumped Storm PetrelOceanodroma tethys. Could the Gordon at the Roman baths be Oceanus, sporting the wings of his sister/wife Tethys? That sounds like special pleading, but there are one or two other things we should bear in mind before dismissing the possibility.

Main pediment at Bath Roman Baths Museum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia.

Main pediment at Bath Roman Baths Museum. Image courtesy of Wikimedia.

The face that floated in a roil of hair reminiscent of the surface of a hot pool, occupied the centre of the pediment above the main entrance to the baths and had further distinctly fishy features.  It was encircled by two wreaths, clutched by a pair of winged Victories, who are in turn flanked by fish tailed Tritons. Below the Victories are a pair of helmets, the one on the left crested with a depiction of a porpoise. This entrance occupied one side of a precinct, and on the opposite side of the precinct was another pediment, this time featuring a depiction of Selene/Luna, who, as I’m sure you will recall, was the deity hovering above the face of Gordon/Oceanus on the altar that caught my eye and set the ball rolling in the first place. Coincidence? Well, yes, quite possibly. Answers on a lead tablet, to be folded and flung with force into the waters of your nearest hot spring.

Selene/Luna statue at the Musei Capitolini - image courtesy of Wikimedia.

Selene/Luna statue at the Musei Capitolini – image courtesy of Wikimedia.

Things I found while researching this post. . .

The Oceanides, by Sibelius. Rather lovely. Builds like a river running to the sea.

The author discovered news depths of fortitude by resisting the inclusion of the line ‘Gordon is a Merman’. And then blew it.


Sabrina Rises, by Arthur Rackham.

Sabrina Rises, by Arthur Rackham.

And finally, Sabrina Rises. Being the legitimate offspring of Oceanus and Tethys is enough justification for a little Rackham. Otherwise what’s the point?

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19 Responses

  1. Mike Bishop says:

    Well my *Roman Bath Discovered* (by B. Cunliffe – you may have heard of him) notes that there are tritons lurking in the corners of the pediment, which could well lend weight to your theory. The two wreaths are actually on a clipeus, to which Gordon is central, a type of Roman shield no longer used in combat but just for ceremonial purposes, particularly on congeries armorum on triumphal reliefs (note the helmet, centre bottom left). On Trajan’s Column, Victory is busy writing on a clipeus with a wreathed border, next to a trophy-load of captured goodies, as a sign of a successful conclusion to the First Dacian War (they didn’t know there was going to be a Second, obviously):

    Here you have a clipeus, supported by two hovering victories (bzzzzzz) supporting a clipeus, with spolia indicated by the helmet, two types of aquatic deities (Oceanus/Gordon and the Tritons, a rock band if ever there was one!): what about a celebration of victory over Oceanus i.e. the conquest of Britain (given the fuss the Roman soldiers made about crossing it in AD43)? Just a thought…

  2. ::coughsintohand:: ‘ It was encircled by two wreaths, clutched by a pair of winged Victories, who are in turn flanked by fish tailed Tritons.’
    Thanks for that Mike – all grist to the mill – and Charterhouse (just over the hill) was an early target for the invasion on account of the substantial amounts of galena there. They would of course also need vast quantities of the lead ore to line the baths. . .

  3. Henry Rothwell says:

    Ohhh – and Victories are winged (and indeed wing-ed) – could the replacement of Oceanus’ fishy headgear with wings be a nod to Victory?

  4. Mike Bishop says:

    Probably just additional VTOL capability. Always useful.

  5. Dave Hill says:

    I have always referred to “Gordon” as “Mementos,” as on my first visit to bath my souvenirs got handed to me in a nice paper bag with his picture and the inscription underneath it “Mementos of Bath”.

  6. tom says:

    When I went to the Roman Bath I came realization that most people refer to this figure as a gorgon, but has never been depicted as a male. The next day I went to the british museum and came across several paintings of Oceanus a came to the same conclusion that is what is in the Roman Baths.

  7. Callum says:

    I had the theory that this face is actually of the Celtic God Belenos due to the fact he is seen/paired with Minerva in most literature, as the temple of Minerva was right next to the baths. Also I saw that Belenos was a very popular God all over the ancient world starting in Rome which spread to Britain. I have also seen depictions of Belenos by Romans which are identical to this one.

  8. Mark says:

    This BBC History of Rome certainly identifies/mis-identifies a similar carving as Oceanus. at 16:43.
    I think you’re correct and someone should be notified of the mistake… and then fired! :)

  9. Linda Proud says:

    Hi Henry, I just googled images of Oceanus because it occurred to me that the ‘Gorgon head’ is just that. And so I came to your blog. The post is a bit old, but I hope you are still interested. Anyway, I found what you had to say fascinating and thank you for it. You mention in the caption to the Rackham that Sabrina (Severn) is the ‘legitimate daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.’ I can’t find any reference to this. Can you remember where you got it?

    • Hi Linda – apologies for the tardy response – as far as I recall I wrote that bit on the understanding that all rivers were the offspring of Oceanus and Tethys. Thanks for the nice words.

  10. Stan says:

    I have to say that the head looks like the spitting image of the Celtic god Belenus.
    Belenus was one of the oldest and most widespread Celtic deities . He was not only worshiped in Celtic Britain, but also in Gaul, Austria, Italy and Spain. Belenus (which means “bright” or “bright blonde”) probably gave its name to the Beltane fire festival , which was originally linked to his cult. Although the Celts also associated it with pastoralism, healing and fountains, the Romans considered Belenus as the god of light and equated it with their god Apollo . Its name also means “Feu de Bel” (Bel was also one of its many appellations).

    His wife wasBelisama (“the brilliant summer”), the goddess of fire , bodies of water and metallurgy. She shared common traits with the goddess Brigid , as well as with the Roman goddess Minerva . Many inscriptions bearing the name “Belisama Minerva” reflect the mixture of deities and traditions that often took place in the lands occupied by the Romans.
    Check the image on

  11. james johnson says:

    the gorgon of bath is real hes god :creator god: with mother earth/gaia=magnetism/aether the sun/son bel/belenus is the holy ghost hes beautiful hes made of cymatic light a gorgon nephilin being of light the shinning one the keeper of my solar light garment of the sol/soul/sole hi have contract with him unity hes 100% real he hovered over my head on my birthday it was amazing bel is his name hes the creator of all soles/soul/ankh keys of life on earth the souls of men are the rays of the sun bel/belus/belenus bel=sound=frequency=life bel is the light behind the sun he is the light jesus is a counter copy bel is the real jesus hes the real god never in my wildest dreams did hi expect what hi/high seen he hovered over my head his head is the size off a van his neck is serpentine and he had about 10 different chains around his neck his eyes are so deep so caring every emotion that is and will be are captured in his eyes the memory brings me tears what a lovely lovely god he his hes overwhelming he adores is creation he adores mankind michael slays the dragon bel is a warrior hes the ultimate warrior hes the universal super mind ask him speak to the aether hes always listening hes always there even tho hi cant see him hi know hes there people need to say thank you for the sun the personification of god is in the sun and he is anthropromorthic hes half man half dragon bels the red dragon his mother is the green dragon

  12. james johnson says:

    bel=god=creator god dont have a beard its light stubble for people that may think im a bit crazy hi have no shame in telling the truth truth is light and light is vibration vibration is life the planet we see in the sky with how own eyes and through the tv the planets are actually orbs theres no outter space where in a realm

  13. I R Griffiths says:

    Having just been to Bath (I prefer the Roman: Aquae Sulis) and acquiring a Gorgon (?) souvenir. It was mentioned the Romans used local artisans to sculpt many of the figures decorating the temple, surrounding the hot pools. These Celtic artisans in fact used the faces of there own deities in their work. It doesn’t seem improbable they might have taken some measure of enjoyment using their god Belenus to adorn a Roman temple.

  14. An Underemployed Archaeologist says:

    Hi, gotta say, I take issue with your statement that there has never been a male gorgon! In fact, in Archaic Greek art the male gorgon was quite common (one example is a terracotta currently at the Met Museum) and there are at least a couple possible male gorgons across Britain (one from the Castle Baths at Caerleon, and one very convincing one from a tombstone pediment (the gorgon is often in funerary contexts in the Mediterranean) at Chester). The male gorgon is, in fact, a thing!

  1. 21/11/2015

    […] pediment outside her temple. And I have the fridge magnet to prove it. Re-discovered in 1790, and debated ever since, the ‘gorgon’s head’ is surrounded by a sea of symbolism – Tritons, a […]

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